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    Sakhalin of imperialism Russian age (1)
    Last deportation area Sakhalin

    1905 August, the Japanese military who occupied [arekusandorohusuku] [saharinsuki]
    ('From the Showa history separate volume 3 100,000,000' reprinting)

     Depending upon the Sakhalin Chishima exchange treaty 1875 (1875) year May 7th, the Sakhalin all island came to the point of Russian territory formally. It pulled up large portion of the Japanese from Sakhalin, but as for the Japanese obtaining the fishing right with the coast from Russia, as for fishing industry activity it was possible to continue. 'The gold hole Sakhalin guide of the world' (Yoshida 秀 structure, 1905), 'Sakhalin and north coastal region' (Toa same sentence meeting, 1905), 'it can lift Sakhalin and intuition observing/thinking adding' (Matsunaga listening sword and 1905) etc in the bibliography regarding the Russian period. Each of them is a publication of 1905 (1905) year. As for this in the Russo-Japanese War, interest of the people of that time abruptly from Russian territory it probably is directed to Sakhalin which “reverts” to Japan.

     Well, it is Sakhalin of that Russian territory age, but to tell the truth, purpose of the Russian Sakhalin possession was guaranty of route because the ship from the [amuru] river and the reverse side GeoCities stork appears to the Pacific Ocean. In addition if you see from the home country, it is the most Far Eastern island which is the Siberian furthermore end. Still with Siberia of developing as a 蔑 [ro] until, the necessity to develop this island was not.

     Then, Russia to designate this island as deportation area, with the prisoners, you engaged to the development business of the island whether of. Even with presently, the criminal who at that time is let flow to Sakhalin, are times when it is thought that political offense and idea offense etc are the center, but at least each literature of that time as for, as for the charge have expressed that brutal offense such as arson and burglar and homicide is the center. The sakhalin Russian society these prisoners had been formed on the center. It is something where the deportation prisoner from those whose punishment is heavy is classified by 3 kinds of fixed part prisoner, 殖 people prisoner and peasant prisoner, consecutively keeps upgrading with the weight of crime and the extent of repentance. 'According to Sakhalin and north coastal region', first the fixed part prisoner, when there is no labor, you binding with the chain, inserts to the prison, labor becoming like the beads connection, is used in the origin under watching the keeper. If it can recognize repentance, not only becoming, the fact that you live through the house is permitted outside the prison without the chain or supervision. Fixed work is recognized although it is assigned, even marriage, also prison term is shortened.

     In this way, when prison term is finished, you become the 殖 people prisoner. The residence in town and work to the commercial industry and, yet cannot not be recognized own the land house selfishly. But, it reclaims the land, it is encouraged that you engage to agriculture from government. When also the 殖 people prisoner passes 4 - 6 years, becoming the peasant prisoner, engaging to the commercial industry in town also possession of real estate is recognized. However, it is encouraged from the government authorities that you engage to agriculture in the village.

    The sakhalin population division (1899 end of year) of imperialism Russian period
    Classification Population (ratio) Woman (ratio)
    Civilian 7,193 (22.5%) 4,102 (57.0%)
    Literary and military arts bureaucracy & family 2,604 (8.1%) 376 (14.4%)
    Prisoner 22,167 (69.4%) 2,397 (10.8%)
    Breakdown    (Fixed part prisoner) 7,080 (22.1%) 714 (10.1%)
    (殖 people prisoner) 8,935 (28.0%) 958 (10.7%)
    (Peasant prisoner) 6,152 (19.3%) 725 (11.8%)
    Total 31,964 (100.0%) 9,272 (29.0%)

      As for the number of Sakhalin prisoners in 1899 (1899) year, as in the chart above, the fixed part prisoner was, 7,080 (as for the inside woman 714), the 殖 people prisoner 8,935 (958 women), as for the peasant prisoner 6,152 (725 women) had counted 22,167 people (2,397 inside women) together. On the one hand, civilian population 7,193 (woman 4,102), population of the literary and military arts bureaucracy, including the family, 2,604 people (376 women), both is the only 9,797 human (woman 4,478) people together, is the number which symbolizes Sakhalin as a deportation area. The japanese who is active in Sakhalin of the Russian territory era most having sharpened the nerve, this prisoner especially peasant prisoner) with was correspondence. 'According to Sakhalin and north coastal region',

     Prisoner as for vain…Because the origin entirely with the felony criminal, as for the extent which kills the person also the fart is the parvenu of the person the unexpected way, once repenting, becoming the body where considerably freedom is effective, as for true character because there are some which it does not come out, everywhere, the burglar and murderer etc are many, it is very dangerous thing.

     This kind of description is seen commonly to also the other literature, is a danger and fear of the assault for the Japanese, protection from the Russian authorities being insufficient, in addition the Japanese of that time the bad feeling which has been held generally vis-a-vis the Russian has been shown truly. Similarly, 'it did, “young to Sakhalin and north coastal region' it came to the point of managing the 此 island with our 邦, if is, it banishes prisoner vain of the 此 and the like promptly, but it probably is important.”With to be, but as for Japan which occupied Sakhalin after the Russo-Japanese War, the reason which retreats the large portion of the Russian, because, there probably is recognition of the Japanese, Russian = brutal offense prisoner of this kind of Sakhalin in the background.


    Residence of development prisoner

    Administrative organization and armament

     The russian of these times Sakhalin administration the director, military affair governor, generalizing the troop and official, had left the administration of all island. The central government office was placed in [arekisandorusuku] city, this area was central area of the Sakhalin all island.

     Furthermore, the Sakhalin all island was divided in three administrative Ku, west “[arekisandoru] state”, the east “[tsuimohu] state”, had named southern part “Korsakov state”. And, state agency was established in the respective “[arekisandorusuku]” “[ruikohu]” “Korsakov”, the state length which administers the internal affair inside the state was allotted 1 people at a time respectively. 'Publishing it was done in Sakhalin and north coastal region', according to the “Sakhalin administrative regulations” (1884 May 15th promulgation), the government post which is placed on Sakhalin is as follows.
    State administration staff 
      Military affair governor and deputy governor
    Central government office 
      Chef de cabinet military affair governor, military affair official, civilian assistant, civilian representation and civilian alternate assistant, budget officer, budget officer assistant, accountant compilation learning/repairing official, member outside military affair governor adjutant and governor secretariat member, foreign language interpretation official *, assistant and veterinarian medical duty department manager and medical duty department manager, agriculture supervisor, leader building engineer, mine engineer and subengineer, subengineer and measurement engineer, central warehouse supervision, central warehouse clerk, central warehouse key
     
    Local government agency (police station)
      Director and assistant director, police station secretary and budget officer, length, 1st Ku 殖 people supervisor, 2nd Ku 殖 people supervisor, medical officer, hospital attaching medical officer and midwife, model jail, model jail assistant, prison length *, same vice chief *

     * As for foreign language Japanese Gilyak language Ainu, as for prison only “[doue]” prison of [arekisandoru] state.

     In Sakhalin of that time when the deportation prisoner reaches to also 2 times that of the other inhabitant, with respect to administration as for the biggest work as for being management of the deportation prisoner until you say, government post for after all that being many without, is conspicuous. Furthermore, for the meaning language, “police station” to be applied it is unclear vis-a-vis the local government agency whether you translate freely from character with respect to or the business which is literal translation, but general police station and, it seems like the government agency kind of organization which adjusts the town hall.

     The [te] truly us is unexpected reaching up to police station and the 云 [hu] government office. As for administration of state length (excluding prison station,) regarding to 此 police station and the place where 云 [hu] name is attached, because the line [hu] (尤 and police office work are 其 one, but), namely administering also economic administration namely the various official industries with the 此 government office, it stays and, it does also the equipment of 殖 people life and the lawsuit thing etc of civil affair with the 此 government office. Normally it seems like general administration of course is.

     The courthouse and postal telegraphic bureau, the auditor office and the safe handling place etc were placed under this each local police station, had been attached to specified office work. In addition, the public official who names [chiyanke] was in each village. It was the kind of position which combines the village government official and the policeman, office work in each village was administered alone entirely. Though, rather than office work contents are “quiet extremely”, calling the junior official of severe duty, just residence of countryside the time the time, it was the appearance that it does the administrative duty which it occurs.

     Military affair governor who is Sakhalin Secretary was commanders in chief of the Sakhalin garrison. As custom the garrison which hits to the duty with the lieutenant general, under that is disposed to 4 places “of [arekisandoru]” “[doue]” “[tsuimohu]” “Korsakov” therefore it was. Length of each garrison was applied lieutenant colonel, fixed capacity of each garrison was approximately 300. With the data of the Japanese side in immediately before the Russo-Japanese War, fixed capacity 1,248 as for the number of actual military personnel somewhat fixed capacity excess could look at the place where is as 1,403 names together. In addition, amnesty is given to the prisoner who is in the midst of serving time after the Russo-Japanese War, organizing the heroism soldier is conveyed. The number to the last is presumption, but 5,000 approximately and you thought the Japanese side.

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