Карафуто - черно-белый след в истории Сахалина
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  • История Сахалина

  • Коренные народы Сахалина

  • Археология, раскопки

  • "Путь богов" по островам

  • "К тайнам туманных Курил". Документальная повесть

  • Округ Эсутору

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    The Sakhalin Ainu's life

    Another heaven and earth Sakhalin Ainu's of extremely north life and the Sakhalin circumstance (1918 Yutaka sentence corporation issue) from leader: [bahunke] Gun phase village
    Leader: [atoisarande] Oka Gun Chimura letter multi orchid Tomari, leader: [shibeken] two [shi] Noda deserted village letter Noboru Hukutsu, story of 3 leaders the book which tree Saburo Aoyama compiled being something which I omit main point privately, it does. It can peep through the Sakhalin Ainu's custom.

    . The Sakhalin Ainu population 1708 people (1916)

    Toyohara support agency men 219 212 women

    Large Tomari support agency men 85 109 women

    зњћ Oka support agency men 259 245 women

    Bed fragrance support agency men 78 79 women

    Support agency man during Hisashi springs 210 210 women

    The Sakhalin Ainu's distribution

    From now (Taisho) we decided the Sakhalin Ainu's demarcation line before 1230, as for the Ainu village most north as for the west seashore blessing й € installation of 49 degrees in north latitude closely, as for the Tokai bank they were multi дѕ† adding and the inside road.

    From the line which ties these 3 points north as for Ainu's village not to withstand, from here the other Sakhalin former people not seeing have recorded the shadow on south. It is thought that the Hokkaido Ainu drifting native origin did in the east west seashore.

    Letter

    There is no letter, had reported with the hearing remembering.

    Simply at the native education place those which learn Japanese there was the Ainu child of present time.


    Leader

    The inside deep water - to multi дѕ† adding 1 person, to inside inside deep water - Motoya wealth 1 person, in large Tomari 1 person and the large Noto Lu 1 person, зњћ the Oka 1 person, 6 leaders were with the Sakhalin all island Nayori 1. (Hereditary system)

    Power without fail, judges everything of incident and adds punishment.

    Judgment

    Detective: If the wrongdoing is done between the same family, suitable dealing is received. Wrongdoing homicide injury theft fraud usurpation 姦 arson kidnapping and the like

    Civil affair: There is no civil lawsuit regarding the money. Those which are troubled have meant that those of the village help this.

    Punishment

    Murder: When it is heavy, being buried alive or when the hara-kiri with [makiri], it is light, the assailant gives treasure ones on victim side. (The Sakhalin Ainu calls punishment of the [ashin] [be])

    Injury crime: [ashinbe]

    зЄѓ stealing: [ashinbe], in case of re-offense when the finger is cut down, it is.

    Fraud usurpation: [ashinbe] however, almost there is no case

    姦: [ashinbe], in other words the 姦 husband sends the treasure to Motoo

    Releasing fire: [ashinbe], however almost there is no case

    Inviting : [ashinbe], the treasure is sent to the parent of the one where the parent of the one which it starts accompanying starts accompanying.

    Crime

    Inside the village generally thing has tried to rule judgment do, really crimes are very few, is. In addition it depends on Ainu's habit concerning the civil criminal problem between Ainu е‹… with.

    Religion

    God: The God way there are various ones. Way in the mountain mountain no God, in the sea God of the sea, in area God of area, in the sun God of the sun, God of month, with you say in month, everyone God way it believes that it is.

    Festival God: Everyday you do not celebrate, but lifting up abundance г[inau] in year, you celebrate.

    Bad God: That the fox which deceives the person is bad God, it is said.

    Conception of postmortem: There is no Buddhism in the Sakhalin Ainu, it goes to the pleasant good place where but as for the good man postmortem, the parent sibling it is, the bad guy is reported that it goes to the hell.

    Bear festival: The bear celebration the ceremony and is strict with the very important festival of the Sakhalin Ainu's. Purpose God like the mountain being, in order to celebrate, is not the case that you celebrate the bear. The bear to God like the mountain as offering reaches to the God way origin.

    Education

    Because there is no either letter, there was no either school, but after the Japanese possession it could provide the native education place and the school which teaches the Japanese letter it was possible.

    Property

    Between the Sakhalin Ainu in the past there is no money and a money altogether, the only property is 寶 ones. Any 寶 things generation generation sword where it is transmitted & spear & bow arrow and the ball textile goods container which is exchanged with the Manchurian person, furthermore are the Sakhalin dog which is used in the dog sled from the ancestor. Is because those which insist right to land ones are little, think those of the heaven 與. Therefore those where the civil lawsuit which insists property right is little are proper thing.

    Marriage

    The wife promise of the parent is possible to the еЁ¶ г‚‹, agreement of this person becomes necessary. If story is decided, you carry еЇ¶ ones of the гЃѕ гЃҐ 12 й»ћ from the house of the son-in-law. Especially there is no formula of wedding, but things such as neighborhood and the kindred it is something of the extent which drinks.

    Divorce

    After becoming the married couple, if it agrees the fact that both parties separate, the wife coming out of the house of the husband, returns to the parents' home. This time it does not return any еЇ¶ things when marrying. After in the parents' home return also both parties as for getting married with the other man and woman are free.

    Death

    If you die, the person of person of the village or relative neighborhood sends the food to the house of the deceased. You bury the cadaver with everyone and raise wooden mark.

    Surname person

    There is no seedling letter in the Sakhalin Ainu. There was just a name which the parent attaches. After becoming Japanese territory, the seedling letter is possible, now it is the same full name as the Japanese.

    Inheritance

    If the master of the house dies, the eldest son inherits, when when there is no boy, the woman inherits, there is no child receiving the child, there are times when it makes the successor. In addition there are times when the son-in-law adopted child is done in the daughter.

    Meal

    In the past because there is no United States, had eaten the fish meat. Making the trout salmon dry, mixing the grass root and Konomi in this and boiling with the oil of the seal it eats. Cooking with all seawater, it had a meal.

    The animal meats you eat the bear dog deer sea animal cow horse, like plant such as mountain lily seaweed water plant leek green onion and eat. The winter has eaten shaving dried ones of the trout.

    Occupation

    The boy is fishing industry and hunting of the salmon trout mainly. The Pisces are daily food, but the winter meat such as the dog иІ‚ otter fox which is captured is designated as the food and, the fur exchanging with the Japanese, has obtained various ones. The woman the skin of the wooden grass the joint weaves the clothing personally.

    Cause of the Sakhalin Ainu population decrease

    Taste of the intense beverage, also intermarriage and change etc. of the food are thought, you can think the lack of hygienic consciousness and medical knowledge but mainly. Value of hygiene is not known, because also the house is poor, if there is no place where the sick person should recuperate and depends on the illness many die and population has decreased gradually. Birthrate being high, mortality rate of the child is high, but it is present condition.

    The Sakhalin resident race population (1916)

    1916: Population of the classified by Sakhalin race

    Kazuto 74372 person

    32 Koreans

    1708 Sakhalin Ainus

    Gilyak ([nibuhu]) 108 people

    Orokko ([uiruta]) 347 people

    Thunder 1 person

    Key phosphorus (Tungus) 24 people

    Support people 21

    91 Russian

    1 German

    The Sakhalin Ainu

    The Sakhalin Ainu's house and family

    It is Ainu who literally, former occupancy is done in Sakhalin.

    Social life

    The Sakhalin Ainu's social life as had the form which almost is in common with the Hokkaido Ainu, in the г‚іг‚їгѓі unit seems that lives with the hunting sphere in the shoreline and the river paralleling etc.. Different from the Hokkaido Ainu, agriculture when it has not gone, is forcing.

    Influencing also climate, it seems that was mainly seen in the Sakhalin south half. Simply, even in the north section all it seems that island resides from the fact that you can see Ainu place name. In addition it seems that trades with the mountain red lead person of the continent the surplus goods of life not only Ezo area.

    Life of four seasons

    Being something which centers fishing and hunting, when spring it thaws, it starts in the man and woman regardless of herring fishing, it seems that is devoted to fishing and hunting to salmon fishing of the fall. As for the boy the deer hunting and the mountain greens taking, as for the woman it seems that made the clothing and the trade item of the family in the interior in the mountain from the fall extending through the winter.

    In addition from the fact that the winter is harsh the food of winter season (dried ones of the fish) and the oil of the sea animal from the fact that you cannot miss as the food, before entering to the harsh winter the fact that these ones are guaranteed was obligation.

    House

    Summer season and with south as Hokkaido チセ it seems that almost is same ones. Simply, at the place where such as north section cold of the winter is very harsh and hinterland, in Hokkaido the hole where it was done in prehistorical era it stayed in order to prevent chill and (was called トイチセ) in winter as done, as for toy チ セ in around 9 October which salmon fishing ends to be made, spring it seems that was passed to around upcoming March.

    Clothing

    From the fact that cold is harsh the hide was the necessity because of protection against the cold. Season other than that seems from the Hokkaido Ainu that much that such as grass skin bark is not different.

    Religion

    It seems that in spiritual life shamanism controls, produces effect to also ウイルタand ニブフ.

    Residence area

    West coastal multi orchid Tomari knowledge coming tow fluorine, it seems that has the village in falling sail Shirahama inside road new question multi easy adding of the Tokai bank.


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